Hypertension causes signs symptoms treatment

Published: 18th June 2009
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" Hypertension is the persistent high blood pressure, in which the systolic is more then 140mm of hg , and diastolic is more then 90mm of hg which are measured in two or more consecutive days in a week".

In patients with diabetes milletes or kidney disease studies have shown that blood pressure over 130/80 mm of Hg should be considered high and warrants further treatment.

The two major type of hypertension are

1. essential hyprtention ( primary ) : accounts for 95% of hypertension. The cause of essential hypertension is multifactorial, that is, there are several factors whose combined effects causes this. Essential hypertension affects approximately 75 million Americans, yet its basic causes or underlying defects are not always known. Approximately 30 % of cases of essential hypertension are attributable to genetic factors. they have an increased resistance (stiffness or lack of elasticity) in the tiny arteries that are most distant from heart.

2. non essential or secondary hypertention : which accounts for 5% of hypertension, the high blood pressure is secondary to (caused by) a specific abnormality in one of the organs or systems of the body.

the other types of hypertention are

1) accelerated hypertension :it is the progressive hypertension with the funduscopic vascular changes.

2) drenal hypertension : that associated with an adrenal tumor which secretes mineralocorticoids.

3) borderline hypertension : in which the arterial blood pressure is sometimes within the normal range and sometimes within the hypertensive range.

4) gestational hypertention : it develops in the pregnent mothers.

5) malignant hypertension : a severe hypertensive state with papilledema of the ocular fundus and vascular hemorrhagic lesions, thickening of the small arteries and arterioles, left ventricular hypertrophy, and poor prognosis.

6) ocular hypertension : it develops in the intra occular region, without signs of glucoma.

7) portal hypertension : abnormally increased pressure in the portal veins which brings blood to the liver.

8) renal hypertension : that associated with or due to renal disease with a factor of parenchymatous ischemia.

9) pulmonary hypertension : it is the pressure exerted in the pulmonary arteris.

10) systemic venous hypertension : elevation of systemic venous pressure, usually detected by inspection of the jugular veins.


1. obesity.

2.excess salt intake.

3. sedentary life styele

4. vascular diseases

5. renal diseases

6. adrenal gland tumor

7.genitic factot

8.Coarctation of the aorta

9. The metabolic syndrome

10.unknown cause.


- dizziness


-night sweating

-hearing own heart sound.

-measurement of bp above 140/90mm of hg


While elevated blood pressure alone is not an illness, it often requires treatment due to its short- and long-term effects on many organs. The risk is increased for:




4. RETINAL DAMAGE. (retinopathy)


investigations done in newly diagnosed hypertention.

the common blood tests are,

-creatinine :to identify any underlying kidney diseases or to check any damage to kidney due to hypeptention.

-electrolites (sodium and potassium)


-electro cardiogram (ecg)


LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION : dont become slave to the snacks and spicies. because these leads to increased cholestrol level in the body. the regular exercises are very helpful to control hypertention. the docter usually recommand to reduce your weight or to reduce obesity. how to reduce weight? we should reduce the fat intake in the food. use more vegetables foods. avoid food stufs such as chicken, mutton,egg, cheese, masala etc. the recommendation is to give up SMOKINNG and AlCOHOL .smoking leads to changes in the blood vessels and alcohol damages the organs. instead of using lifts use stair cases. avoid sedentarylife styles. cultivate an habbit of walking every day morning or evening. do an half an hour exrecises atleast 3 days a week if you are busy. otherwise do the regular exercises it keeps you healthy and freshness as it enhances the easy blood flow in the body.

reduce the amount of SALT in the diet.the regular intake of calcium has an effect in reducing hypertention.use the fruits and vegetable rich diet, low fat or reduced fat,low sodium diet. This diet is known as the DASH diet(Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), and is based on National Institutes of Health sponsored research. the fruits, vegetables, and nuts have the added benefit of increasing dietary POTASSIUM, which offsets the effect of sodium and acts on the kidney to decrease blood pressure.

the stress situation should be avoided, such as avoiding high sound levels or high illuminations helps in reducing blod pressure. to avoid stress condition the MEDITATION IS PREFFERED.



there are number of drugs to treat hypertention called antihypertensive drugs. which lowers the blood pressure. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5-6 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 40%, of coronary heart disease by 15-20%, and reduces the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from vascular disease.

Commonly used drugs are

1.ace inhibitors : such as captopril, enalpril etc

2.angiotensin receptor antagonist : such as irbesartan,

3. alpa blockers : eg prazosin

4.beta blocker ; such as metoprolol, atenolol, labetalolol.

5.calcium channel blocker such as amlodipine verapamil etc.

6.diuretics: hydrochlorothiazide.

7. direct renin inhibiter: teckturna.

this type of many medications should be used initially for hypertension. then the combination of drugs is given.

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